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Wisdom, let us attend!

Kirtan Insights from Aindra Das

The following is an interview with Sripad Aindra das done in 2009 for the forthcoming book Kirtan Meditations – The Mood and Technique of Bhakti Kirtan compiled by Dhanurdhara Swami and Akincana Krishna dasa.  Due to the unexpected loss of this great soul I decided to release his interview quite before the editing has been finished. More can be read at I hope it gives some pleasure and solace to the congregation of the devotees feeling the loss of this great soul. Dhanurdhara Swami

Chanting with purity

Harinam-sankirtan means to loudly chant the holy name for the benefit of others.  We should seriously consider to what extent we are benefiting others, and also to what extent we are benefiting ourselves. There is apparent kirtan and real kirtan. Only sankirtan where the pure name is chanted is real sankirtan.  If someone is making offenses to the name, simply articulating the syllables “Hare Krishna,” that is not real sankirtan.  One must thus carefully consider the offenses to be avoided in the matter of chanting.

Can you talk about the different types of chanting?

There is bhukti-nama, offensive chanting, which results in material gain; there is mukti-nama, shadow chanting, which results in liberation, and there is prema-nama, pure chanting, which results in prema-bhakti, pure love of Godhead.

Bhukti-nama means offensive chanting. By chanting offensively, you can benefit others only by increasing their material piety.  Bhaktivinoda Thakura therefore states that a pure devotee should not participate in kirtan led by offenders to the holy name.  Who are those offenders?  Those who do kirtan for ulterior motives–who chant for money, or to augment their sex appeal, or do it for name and fame.  Such chanting can at best result in material gratification.

Then there is mukti-nama or namabhasa. By such chanting one not only gradually becomes freed from all material contamination, but also liberates others from material existence. In other words, by hearing someone’s loud chanting of namabhasa, one can attain liberation from material existence. Sounds good, right? It’s certainly better than staying bound in the material world. But by such kirtan alone you cannot inculcate bhakti into the hearts of those who hear that kirtan, because namabhasa kirtan is only a resemblance of the holy name and not the pure name.

Lord Caitanya’s movement is the prema-nam-sankirtan movement. Its purpose is to give the highest benefit, pure love of Godhead.  Therefore if one actually wants to give oneself and others the highest benefit, one must awaken pure devotion to Radha and Krishna and for Sri Caitanya.  To achieve that purpose we have to chant purely.

Jagadananda Pandit in Prema Vivarta thus recommends that if one wants to elevate their chanting to the platform of the pure name, one should perform sankirtan (as well as japa) in the association of those who are chanting the pure name. Only then can sankirtan can give the highest benefit.

Purity is the main thing – musical style is secondary

The most important ingredient in kirtan is the mood in which it is done. If one is either chanting the name with offenses, or chanting for liberation, one will not get bhakti, nor will one be able to offer it to anyone else.

It doesn’t matter whether one is accompanying the kirtan with kartalas, mrdangas and harmonium1, using a drum set, electric keyboard and bass guitar, decorating the kirtan with flute and violin, or even just clapping one’s hands. One can chant with very melodious classical ragas, or one can sing raucous, hellacious, heavy metal chanting to attract certain people.  One can sing ten tunes an hour or sing one tune every ten hours, sing in complex rhythmic patterns or simple rhythmic one. One can have jumping dancing kirtan or a very slow, contemplative kirtan. No matter what you do, no matter how you decorate the kirtan, if such chanting is not done with pure devotion, it will never ever inculcate bhakti into the heart of anyone.

The real question is: Are you chanting suddha-nama?

On the other hand, if you are chanting suddha-nama2, you will get prema3, the greatest need of the soul.  Such chanting is real kirtan and it gives authentic, eternal benefit, by elevating ones soul as well the souls of others.  It is real welfare work, not simply material altruism or liberation from repeated birth and death.  It is thus the work meant to help others reconstitute their original dormant love of Godhead and uplift their soul to the platform of real satisfaction based on unalloyed pure devotion.

If one has the power, by the grace of suddha-nama, to do that kind of good to others, then it doesn’t matter how you decorate the kirtan with accompaniment and skill.

The real question is then, are you doing real good for others by chanting suddha-nama?

If we are only chanting a lower stage we shouldn’t perform sankirtana?

No, I’m not saying that.  But we should know that we are not actually manifesting the real form of kirtan unless we are chanting without motive where suddha-nama, manifests.

Raga kirtan

It is also important to know the meaning of raga kirtan. In a musical sense raga refers to appropriate melodies. The classical Indian system of ragas are thus certainly useful in kirtan, but real raga kirtan, goes beyond  just musical consideration  It is kirtan on the platform of bhava, devotion with spontaneous feeling.

Raga literally means attraction or affectionate attachment. In kirtan it refers to melodies that create an attractive atmosphere to affect the heart and increase affection.  This doesn’t mean that raga is just meant for making the music attractive for us and others.  It means to perform kirtan in such a way that Krishna becomes attracted to our kirtan. It is kirtan where Krishna is attracted to the expression of our love expressed by the atmosphere we have generated for His pleasure.

And that principle of attraction is expansive.  When you satisfy Krishna you satisfy the whole creation. Thus everyone is automatically pleased and attracted by performing sankirtan solely for the pleasure of Krishna.

Instrumentation in kirtan can thus be likened to so many zeros.  Zeros, even many zeros, have value only if one is added before them. You then get ten, 100, 1,000 or even a million. Similarly musical talent in kirtan has no value within itself, but expands exponentially in value when one, when suddha-nama, is added before it.  And without the one of suddha-nama, the mood of offering the kirtan for the pleasure of Krishna, all the best music and instrumentation, is simply zero.

We should note, however, that we don’t see in Govinda Lilamrta4. the gopis concerned about Krishna not accepting their hundreds and millions of zeros, their unlimited musical talent in the performance of kirtan.  That is because their kirtan is solely for his pleasure. They never thought, “Oh we better not make the musical instrumentation too nice because we may get trapped by our own desires to enjoy the musical vibration and then Krishna won’t accept our kirtan.”  Rather the gopis’ used  whatever complex musical and rhythmical arrangements found in the music of Lord Brahma and the residents of the higher planetary systems and beyond that the even more difficult musical arrangements performed by Laksmi Narayanaand the residents of Vaikuntha.  But whatever musical embellishments they used were all simply done without any tinge of ulterior motive.

It is said in sastra5 that when Krishna plays his flute it is so complex and astounding that demigods like Lord Brahma become bewildered  and Lord Siva  falls off Nandi the bull, unconscious.  So we can’t insist that only simple tunes and melody satisfy Krishna.  Krishna enjoys a variety of flavors, many of which are intricate.  If Krishna only enjoys simple presentations then why do we change the dress of the Deities’ dress twice a day? It is the same Krishna, but the new dress allows us to appreciate him in a fresh way.  Similarly when we see Krishna decorated in a different ragas or tunes, the attractive atmosphere created enhances our appreciation of the beauty of Krishna In the form of his name.  Instead of decorating him in only one dress, a red dress all the time, we decorate him sometimes in a blue dress, or yellow dress, that contrasts so stunningly against Krishna’s black body.  But then sometimes we dress Him in a pink dress which brings out Krishna’s beauty in a slightly different way.  Sometimes He is dressed with simple ornamentation, and sometimes with very complex ornamentation. The simple ornamentation makes Krishna’s bodily form look a little more complex, whereas the complex ornamentation brings out the simple beauty and sweetness of Krishna in another way. In the exact same way we can bring out the unique beauty of the holy name with various decorations of ragas.

Why is it that we offer Krishna a feast and not just khichari.  Of course Krishna was satisfied to eat Sanatana Gosvami’s wheat balls without any salt, because it was offered with devotion, but that is all he had. Do you think that the gopis only offer khichari6 to Krishna every day?  Why is it that Radharani never cooks the same milk preparation twice?   To entice Krishna, to add his appetite, to enchant him, to make him think that Radharani really loves him.  So in the same way, when we make a nice feast for Krishna we offer Him so many different varieties.

So there is scope in Krishna consciousness for making everything first-class, better than first-class, and offering all these hundreds and thousands of zeros of first-class arrangements for the pleasure of Krishna. Therefore if the kirtan arrangements are all first-class and done simply for Krishna’s pleasure without any other consideration involved, that is raga kirtan.

Does Krishna like Indian classical music the most?

Yes, why not, but the over riding principle is Krishna’s pleasure? Govinda Lilamrta describes that the gopis were using hundreds of ragas and they weren’t even performing the ragas according to the strict rules of time consideration. They were performing all varieties of ragas, daytime ragas, seasonal ragas, any type of ragas, within the course of one night’s rasa lila.  Not only did they relish varieties of previously established ragas, but they mixed ragas and they created new ragas, combined with extremely complex mrdanga playing and extremely complex dancing. It describes how one gopi came out into the middle of the arena and she tapped her feet once, then twice, then thrice, to prove to the audience that her ankle bells were working, and then began to dance in such an unprecedented way that in spite of all of her intricate footwork, her ankle bells did not sound.  Krishna and Radharani and all the sakhis7 exclaimed bravo, bravo, well done! She had such so much talent, but it was for the pleasure of Krishna and all the devotees.

At the same time, however, when Srila Prabhupada asked a pujari8 to identify a carob-peanut butter sweet on the Deity plate that he was not familiar with he disapproved.  “Do not offer it to the Deities. I have given you so many varieties of sweets that Krishna likes to eat.”  So there are things that Krishna prefers. The Indian classical raga system is something like that–a musical system that Krishna appreciates, but that doesn’t mean that Krishna cannot appreciate new ragas beyond the old established ragas that are created for His pleasure.

Personal Meditations

In both my japa meditation, and in my performance of sankirtan, I begin by meditating on and worshiping Sri Sri Gauranga9 and Nityandana in Navadvipa. Then I gradually enter through the mood and bhava of Sri Caitanya into the chanting of the madhurya nama hare krishna maha-mantra and meditation on Radha and Krishna. Gaura-nama is audharya-nama, the name of compassion, and Radha-Krishna nama is madhurya-nama, sweetness personified. The audharya-nama-sankirtan can very quickly elevate the devotees to the platform of suddha-nama- sankirtan. And suddha-nama-sankirtan, as we have discussed before, has the power to inculcate bhakti-sakti into the heart of the people associated with the kirtan.

Krishna says in Bhagavad-gita “first surrender, then bhakti, or prema, comes later.” Gaura is so merciful, however, that he says without considering who is fit and who is not fit, “Just take love of Godhead.”  Surrender comes later. But how can one just take love of godhead if one doesn’t take gaura-nama first?

What is the difference between japa and kirtana?

There are two prominent ways that the gopis are absorbed in the services of Radha and Krishna.  One is in nikunja seva, where one serves Radha-Krishna alone. The other is rasa-lila – dancing and singing and serving Krishna with all the gopis.

Similarly as all the gopis have their individual kunjas for individual personal service, we chant nama japa in the mood of nama seva, to assist in personal intimate service.  Nama japa is thus like facilitating the meeting of Radha and Krishna alone.

So nama japa is a more secluded, personal affair. You may even pull your chaddar over your face so that no one can see your emotions. Japa is your own relationship to Radha and Krishna without the consideration that your feelings are shared with others. One is thus free to allow the heart to flow and express one’s desperation for the eternal loving service to the holy name in a way that one can’t do in public assembly.

However, nama japa is not simply a matter of only one’s personal relationship with Radha and Krishna. We also perform nama japa to become inspired to share our devotion to Radha and Krishna with others in the form of nama sankirtana. In that way japa is never a selfish affair. So japa can either be chanted for the satisfaction of Radha and Krishna or chanted to attain the spiritual experience necessary to have real compassion on others.  In either case, the aim is never selfish or self aggrandizing.

As practicing devotees, it’s powerful to chant nama japa in the mood of separation – especially a type of separation called purva raga, which means the intense, desperate anticipation to meet Radha and Krishna.  The idea is that you meditate on the types of services that you would like to do for Radha and Krishna and pray, “When, oh, when will that day be mine?” That is purva-raga.

Sankirtan, on the other hand, can be performed in the spirit of Krishna’s rasa lila. The rasa lila acts as an appetizer to wet Krishna’s appetite for more intimate reciprocation with his gopis. In Ujjvala nilamani10, however, there is a description that says that the rasa lila generates in Krishna a happiness that far surpasses even the experience of His complete intimate union with Srimati Radharani and the gopis. One may ask “How is it possible for rasa-lila to be the highest when the culmination of all pastimes is Radha-Krishna enjoying alone in the forests of Vrindavana? “The answer is vipralambha; it is the mood of separation. In the rasa lila Krishna although so close is so far away as well. He is dancing with the gopis, but not yet in his most intimate association with them.  The rasa lila is thus like the hors d’oeuvres that are served before the meal. The meal is the real objective, but hors d’oeuvres can often be more tantalizing, more piquant and full of rasa than the feast itself.  In the same way the most exuberant expression of nama-bhajana is not being alone with Krishna in japa, but in the performance of nama-sankirtan with others.

By nama-kirtan Krishna also sees that you are serious about sacrificing your egocentricity for the purpose of helping others to gain access to the holy name. An attraction thus naturally awakens within Krishna to the soul who is performing that yajna. It induces him to relish deeper with that devotee even more intimate, loving reciprocation in the form of nama japa In that way, nama-sankirtan and nama japa are always inter-supportive

Nowhere, however, it is said that nama japa is the yuga-dharma, the specific spiritual practice for this age. The yuga-dharma is nama-sankirtan, loud chanting for the benefit of others. And that’s what brings nama seva to the highest level.

The yuga-dharma facilitates the proper result from the performance of all other practices of devotional service. Therefore without performing sankirtan, one cannot gain the highest benefit and deepest realization of the purpose of hearing the Bhagavata, chanting nama japa, taking first-class sadhu-sanga11, worshipping the Deity, or of residing in the holy dhama12.  In other words, one cannot gain the highest result from engaging in any other practice of devotional service without spending sufficient time in the direct performance of nama-sankirtan.

How does one achieve the highest benefit in all devotional practices by nama-sankirtan? When Krishna sees that someone is helping others by giving them the opportunity to hear the holy name, then Krishna from within and from without lifts the curtain of yogamaya from that person.  He thus allows them to see the actual nature of the Deity and to penetrate and realize the deepest imports of the Bhagavata, the path of spontaneous devotion.  And by serving  guru and Krishna on the path of raga, or at least by practicing serving them on that path, ones  understanding of Bhagavata and ones relish of the Deity becomes even further enhanced. Then all one’s practices enter the raga dimension and helps one evolve to the plane of raganuga bhava, vraja bhava. That is real sankirtan. That is the sankirtan of Lord Caitanya and his associates – the relish of vraja bhava in the course of performing sankirtan-yajna.

It is essential that devotees who are actually very serious about advancing in Krishna consciousness, advancing to the perfectional stage, to come to this position of performing raga-mayi-sankirtan, kirtan laden with spiritual emotion. Only then can one help others awaken their deepest appreciation of the Bhagavata and their deepest appreciation of all gifts that Srila Prabhupada and all the acaryas13 have left.

Aindra’s style

I have more or less coined the name for my style of kirtan as progressive kirtan. Just like there is progressive rock, so I have more or less named my way of doing kirtan as progressive kirtan. The kind of kirtan that I have been influenced by is a northern Indian classical style called kayal.  Kayal, as far as I understand, means fantasy. I haven’t gotten deeply into that style, but I have incorporated elements of that style in my humble attempt.

What I see about the kayal style is that it leaves room for improvisation more so than the dhrupad style. Dhrupad style is more rigid. Dhrupad style is more concerned with the letter of the law of musical ragas, whereas the kayal style more or less accentuates the spirit of the law of musical ragas.  In the kayal style you may add a note to a raga, for example, for the purpose of inspiration or generating a bhava. That kind of reflects the gopis’ mixing of ragas or creating new ragas.  The basic principles of the raga remain intact, but some extra note may be added just to enhance the flavor.  In that way it tends to enhance the beauty of a raga in some ways.

Getting devotees to chant

When you’re leading kirtan we not only benefit people by giving them a chance to hear, but benefit them a hundred times over by giving them a chance to chant. In the Hari-bhakti-vilasa14 it said that one who is hearing is benefited, but one who chants is benefited a hundred times more.

Some devotees complain about the complexity in my style, but I think that if you actually listen to the vast majority of my kirtan, it is quite simple if one just pays attention. One thing I try to do is keep people on their toes, forcing devotees who participate with me in kirtan to tune in and listen more attentively, instead of just putting their mind on automatic.

In the kind of kirtan that I prefer, there are many varieties of tastes being generated, along with progressive rhythmic patters. We’ll use the mrdanga and kartalas to change up, change over, shift gears, and bring the kirtan into new dimensions. I try to use a variety of technical musical embellishments which I feel enhance the attractiveness of the kirtan.  My practical experience is that putting the kirtan through changes helps to keep the devotees who are participating in the kirtan alert. It gets them out of the automatic mode and gets them into the thinking mode. From the thinking mode you can come to the conscious mode. Conscious of what you are doing, conscious of how the kirtan is developing, conscious of the mood that the kirtan leader is trying to inspire in the hearts of the other participants, whether it is direct inner circle participants, or outer circle public. From what I gather, many devotees take inspiration from the style of kirtan that I have developed.

No one said that leading a kirtan is meant to be a cakewalk. It is a sacrifice, an austerity. It is not easy. It is difficult to have the necessary clout, purity of purpose and intention in chanting to inspire people from within to come forward to help. Personally I don’t claim to be so powerful, or so expert, so I have to struggle sometimes just to wake people up to get them to chant. It’s not that the tune is too complicated; it is that people are not attentive. So sometimes you have to remind those people again and again “Prabhu, haribol! Chant!” because they are going to get much more benefit by participating in the responsive chanting.

Breaking down false ego

In the Caitanya-caritamrta15 in the chapter called the bheda kirtanas we see a description of how Lord Caitanya divided the devotees into various kirtan groups. There were four kirtan groups each having two mrdanga players, and eight kartal players, That’s sixteen kartala players and six lead singers, simultaneously singing the lead with six lead responders simultaneously responding.

I have incorporated that standard to a large extent in my own endeavors to perform kirtan, largely because my voice has been destroyed due to so many years of very intense kirtan.  My voice has its limitations, but I see that as Krishna’s mercy in a few different ways.

I can’t be falsely proud about how beautiful my voice is, because it is not anymore.  I ask for others to help me sing the lead when I perform kirtan, which helps to generate enthusiasm and bring more devotees on board. Devotees are naturally eager to help when they see someone needs help, and they become enthusiastic when they are part of the leadership. I may still give the impetus to the progressive direction of the kirtan, but for the most part it is other people who are singing more than me. So when we go up to the high parts to, as Jayadvaita Swami would say, “kill my voice,” then other devotees come and kill their voices too. I reason that the louder the voice the more Lord Caitanya will acknowledge our attempt to selflessly cooperate for his pleasure and bestow his mercy on us.

So when I do kirtan, it’s not a one-man show. That checks the tendency for one person to exploit the kirtan for personal self aggrandizement.  Then even if it is not the pure name, it helps us come a lot closer to the offense-less platform. And others become inspired that the kirtan is selfless.

When Lord Caitanya organized the bheda kirtans not only did he have six kirtan leaders singing, but he had six lead kirtan responders.  There is a very good reason for that.  The mass of people are not going to be so expert at picking up what tune was just sung, but if there are expert kirtan responders singing the correct tune, the rest of devotees will more likely be able to follow.  This is very useful.

“We’re all in it together”

If the kirtana leader is singing without playing an instrument, or if he’s playing the harmonium, which is not a rhythmic instrument, then the mrdanga player must tune in and pick up on where the kirtana leader wants to go with the kirtan. The idea for the mrdanga player is to serve and enhance the mood of the kirtan leader. Then kartals should follow the mrdanga. The mrdanga player should not be so self centered that his mrdanga playing becomes more important to him then the kirtan forcing the kirtan leader to surrender to whatever he is doing.

I have experienced that with a few different mrdanga players. They are neither interested in, nor capable of, understanding my mood or musical preferences.  They just can’t pick on what I am doing to effectively inspire and engage others. When the mrdanga or kartal player is insensitive to what the kirtan leader needs, then the kirtan loses direction and the leader becomes very frustrated.

That doesn’t mean, however, that there is no room for self-expression, for innovativeness, or for artistic finesse on the part of the different instrument players, because after all, even though the kirtan leader is the person in charge, it is not his performance alone.  Sankirtan is a congregational effort. Everyone is in it together.

Love is always a two-way street. In real kirtan there is thus a give and take among the performers.  Sometimes the mrdanga player has a good idea, or the kartal player has a good idea. And if it is good idea, the kirtan leader benefits by surrendering to what the mrdanga player has to offer. There is natural reciprocation between good kirtan performers.  That’s called jamming.  It’s sharing inspiration with each other.  That sharing brings kirtan to another dimension of spontaneous dynamism which increases the inspiration, enthusiasm and appreciation of each other as cooperative constituents in Lord Caitanya’s lila.

Playing with expertise and playing in tune

There is place for expertise. Prabhupada expressed great pleasure with Acyutananda’s mrdanga playing. At that time Acyutananda was pretty expert compared to most of the rest of us. Prabhupada complemented him, telling him “You are playing just like a professional.” That wasn’t a criticism, “what the hell are you doing trying to play like a professional!”  He was complimenting him that “you’re playing just like a professional.” He was exhibiting a certain level of competence and Prabhupada appreciated it.  Not that professionalism supersedes the principle of purity, but there is need to understand the instrument that you are playing.

There is also a need to tune the instrument that you are playing.   I personally demand that devotees who are playing the mrdangas understand that the first lesson in playing any instrument is how to tune it.  Just like if you are going to play a guitar, or a sitar, the first thing you have to do before you start playing it, is you have to tune the instrument.  Similarly a mrdanga needs to be tuned properly to have the proper vibration.

In any musical performance you’ll have soprano instruments, mid range instruments and base instruments. The mrdanga is supposed to be a bass instrument. That is madhura mrdanga bhaje, very low and sweet – very moving to the heart.  The professional kirtan players, sahajiya16 as they may be, they know how to tune their instruments. You’ll hear them playing very low, very sweet, deep resounding mrdangas.  Mrdangas constitute the bottom of the kirtan.

Similarly, it is important to understand what it is to have a tuned pair of kartalas. If one kartal is lower in pitch than the other kartal, if they are not the same pitch, then it can create an awfully discordant vibration that breaks the ear. And rather than attracting people to the kirtan, it drives them away.  Kartals constitute the high end.

So you have bottom and high end complementing the mid range, which is the voice. If the mrdanga is not tuned low, then the mrdanga intrudes upon the mid range, where the voices are singing.  Rather than enhancing the kirtan of the holy name, an un-tuned mrdanga intrudes on the chanting and spoils the kirtan.

Just like when you are coming down the street and hear a hari nama party, what is the first thing you hear?  Kartals because it has the highest range and is automatically louder. The last thing you hear is the mrdanga. You hear kartals the voice and finally the mrdanga.

According to Prabhupada the mrdanga should be half the volume of the voice, and the kartals should be half the volume of the mrdanga. So if you are going to have four mrdanga players, you should have six men leading the kirtan. It is not that there should be four mrdangas playing competing on the mid range, frequencies with a single voice making it difficult for the leader to sing.  So mrdanga must be tuned very low. It then not only creates the bass frequencies on the bottom of the kirtan and allows the mid range vocals to shine through, but it is madhurya, very sweet and moves the heart.  Most important it t allows the holy name to shine through, which is the whole purpose of the kirtan.

Playing and singing

Prabhupada said that the instruments should not be played in way that one cannot sing along with them at the same time.  That’s another problem. Sometimes devotees become so absorbed in trying to play their instruments in complicated way that they can’t chant while they play.  That means they haven’t learned to play them properly.  If one is not competent, or if one did not learn properly, he may know how to play intricate beats on the mrdanga, but not how to sing at the same time — which is a hundred times the benefit of only hearing.

So if one is playing the mrdanga properly by following the kirtan leader and serving the holy name and at the same time hearing, that’s great. But higher than that, better than that, is being able to play the mrdanga and sing at the same time, at least as much as possible.

Sometimes when the kirtan gets very heavy and it is really taking off, then the mrdanga player may have to back out of chanting to execute the changes the kirtan leader is putting the kirtan through. But that should be the exception, not the rule. As a general rule, as much as possible, the mrdanga players should also respond with chanting.

As far as the kartal players are concerned – I have seen people playing the kartal, or playing the gong, or playing the whompers, or playing the shakers, or banging on instruments just for their own high, completely oblivious to the fact that they should be chanting.  And honestly speaking – that boils my blood!

Play it the Vedic way

If devotees can learn how to play instruments in the Indian classical style, it goes a long way to enhance the transcultural experience of sankirtan. If you learn how to play the mrdanga nicely, according to a traditional mantra system, that generates the type of vibration which takes the kirtan to another cultural dimension.  Similarly with the violin—someone may play the violin in a western classical style, but I think for kirtan it is much better to play with an Indian classical style. Have you ever heard Indian classical guitar playing?  It’s outrageously good, tremendous.  Have you ever heard Indian classical clarinet? It’s tremendous. Have you ever heard classical Indian flute? Compared to the occidental style of flute or violin playing, the Indian classical style is much more appropriate for kirtan.  When you play those instruments in kirtan in a western style, I think it’s not as harmonious. The same can be said for harmonium playing. Srila Prabhupada played harmonium in an Indian classical style.  He didn’t use chords.  It’s not that the Vedic culture doesn’t lend itself to higher cultural expression than other so called cultures of the world. The highest cultural expressions in the world are Vedic cultural expressions. It’s not like you are going to lose something by learning how to play the instruments in accordance with the Vedic way.


I go by Srila Prabhupada’s instruction on the matter. First Srila Prabhupada said that the harmonium should not be played in the temple. Why did he say that? I think it was because he didn’t like harmoniums being played with western chords.

That becomes evident by the time he wrote the third letter on this point.  First Prabhupada said that harmoniums couldn’t be played in temples, only for festival programs. Then he said that harmonium could be played in the temple but not during the arati. And then the third and last letter that came out, Prabhupada tells said that harmonium can be played during an arati, but melodiously.”  Melodiously means following the melody line, not hanging on chords. Melodiously means following the way Srila Prabhupada taught us to play harmonium.  He recorded the harmonium not just that we can enjoy hearing, but so that we can learn how to play the harmonium.

One time Srila Prabhupada was asked “Srila Prabhupada, what kind of instruments are there in the spiritual world?” and Prabhupada answered, “Well, there is mrdanga, there are kartalas,” and then he said, “and there is a little harmonium.” Prabhupada appreciated the harmonium enough to import it to the spiritual world. Prabhupada himself played harmonium.  And even members of the Gaudiya Matha appreciated that Prabhupada’s playing of the harmonium was very expert. Prabhupada said that the harmonium creates a nice atmosphere.

Therefore I learned how to play harmonium, and I use the harmonium in temple kirtanas because Prabhupada said it was okay.  He gave his permission.  I don’t feel that it is altogether wrong to play the harmonium.  But I do feel that it is at least somewhat wrong to allow the harmonium to play you.  In other words, if you are going to play the harmonium you should be expert enough to play the harmonium like Srila Prabhupada, or at least according to his instructions.  Not that you can’t get around on the keyboard and that forces your tune to conform to whatever chord you find on the harmonium.  Chords destroy the raga system, or imprison it, as Vaiyasaki would say.

Advice to junior kirtana leaders

If someone is not expert in following in a kirtan he is actually not an expert leader. An expert leader is expert at both leading and following. It is not that one puts on a big show of being the kirtana leader, but when someone else is leading, he is either disinterested in or incapable of following others. Just like someone is expert in harmonium only by reading music, but the real expert is one who can play just by hearing. He is one who also can follow the tune that the other leader is singing. That is actual expertise.

Why is it that Lord Caitanya organized so that there were six kirtana leaders? First of all there were no microphones, so you need six kirtana leaders to be heard. After all you have four mrdangas and sixteen pairs of kartalas to compete with. And don’t think that the mrdangas and kartals weren’t played loudly. They were played very loudly. It is described in the sastra how they were played resounding like thunder.  It is not that in Lord Caitanya’s time the kirtana was only very mellow and contemplative and soft. They didn’t have microphones so those who are not so expert can’t overkill it with tone deaf singing.  Not that Lord Caitanya had to resort to that in organizing his kirtanas. Rather he had six expert kirtana leaders who were able to understand themselves enough to go in the next phase of the kirtana, cooperating together to sing louder enough so that the thousands of people who participated in the kirtanas could hear.

Supplementary instruments

Instruments are important, but we already have all the instruments we need – we have a tongue, and we have ears. So we have to remember that our performance of nama sankirtan is primarily based on those instruments. Everything else should be seen as supplementary, or supportive, a decoration to enhance. So then any other instruments should actually enhance and not detract from the chanting with the tongue and ear.

That’s why I don’t allow djembes when I perform sankirtana.  At one time I allowed it, but after gaining experience as to what happens when I allow it, I decided that definitely I shall not allow djembe to accompany my kirtana. The djembe has its appeal perhaps because it is easier to play than a mrdanga nicely.  But the djembe is a tamasic instrument, which totally overpowers and obliterates the beauty of the madhurya mrdanga vibration.  Of course someone could argue that Lord Caitanya didn’t have a harmonium, but certainly Lord Caitanya didn’t have a djembe in his sankirtana parties. If the djembe must be used at all, it should be used outside. But even then the tendency is for it to overpower the mrdanga and to impede the beauty and sweetness of its vibration to move the heart which in and of itself is a transcendental sound which moves the heart toward Krishna.

Personally, I don’t prefer to have a bass guitar cranked up so loud that it obliterates everything else, although it doesn’t have to be cranked up so loud. I know that when an expert plays the bass guitar it can be a little tasteful if it is not cranked up very loud.  I’m not into enhancing the kirtaa with bass guitars. In my opinion it doesn’t do much for the kirtana.

I hate accordions.  The sound is weird and it brings back memories of Russian bar music.  That’s why I have developed this other style of small harmoniums, to offer an alternative to the accordion.

The main mantra

One thing is, I always emphasize the importance of chanting the Hare Krishna maha-mantra. Although Prabhupada said that the Gosvamis’ songs are the extensions of the maha mantra, still more important than all of them is the mukhya mantra, the chief mantra. So many times devotees become side tracked because of lack of taste for chanting the maha-mantra due to not chanting enough. They are thinking that the kirtana is boring if you don’t switch to “Govinda Jaya Jaya”, or “Radhe Radhe”, or whatever jaya, jaya, jaya. Undoubtedly Srila Prabhupada’s instruction is that the main focus of the kirtana should be the maha-mantra. Here in Vrindavana for the 24-hour kirtana we exclusively chant the maha-mantra. That is the main and best sankirtana mantra for this age. So even though there is Hari Haraye Namah Krishna, another way of chanting the maha-mantra given by Lord Caitanya, still, the 16-syllable maha-mantra mentioned in the sastra is the main mantra.

The 24-hour kirtan

Why akhanda-nama, 24-hour kirtana? Why? People are forced to become pious by even entering into an atmosphere where a kirtan had been performed as the ethereal atmosphere still remains purifying.  So how much more one is forced to become pious when one walks into a place where the kirtana performance is going on and one hears the holy name. And how much even more purifying is the place where the holy name is being heard 24-hours a day, nonstop. When you chant non-stop in a place the power of that place simply increases, increases and, increases, but when the kirtana breaks, it loses power.

The akhanda kirtan also forces people to surrender more, because they can’t just start talking about something or even stop to eat. One has to sacrifice. There is also a greater degree of responsibility toward the other members of the team as they are working very hard to keep hari-nama continuously manifest in the atmosphere.

If you are doing akhanda-nama-kirtan for years and years, the atmosphere that has been generated by the continuous manifestation of nama becomes so powerful that it not only purifies one from material contamination, but purifies the egoism of the soul, bringing the soul to its original egoism, the mood of a resident of Vrindavana.

Related Posts: In Loving Memory of Aindra DasKirtan Podcast 2

Dhanurdhara Swami’s Interview is also posted at his website Waves of Devotion.

  1. 1. Indian cymbals and two headed clay drum, and a hand-pumped, reed keyboard instrument 
  2. 2.the pure name 
  3. of God 
  4. esoteric work explaining the daily pastimes of Krishna and his associates in Vrindavana by the 16th century bhakti saint Krishna das Kaviraja 
  5. 5.sacred texts 
  6. 6.a simple stew of rice and lentils 
  7. 7.the girlfriends of Radharani 
  8. 8.temple priest 
  9. 9.another name for Sri Chaitanya 
  10. esoteric work by the 16th century bhakti saint Rupa Goswami 
  11. 11.the company of saintly people 
  12. 12.holy places 
  13. 13.great teachers 
  14. 14.a bhakti manual adressing the observance of vows and rituals by the 16th century bhakti saint Sanatana Goswami 
  15. important biography of Sri Chaitanya by Krishna dasa Kaviraja 
  16. who takes bhakti cheaply 



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Concerning the charging of money to participate in the congregational chanting of the Holy Names: Nama Hatta (“the Marketplace of the Holy Name”) was founded in the 1500′s in West Bengal by Sri Nityananada Raya on the Island of Godruma in Navadvip. Here is the orthodox Gaudiya Vaishnava position:


Excerpt from “The Seventh Goswami: A Biography of Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura” by Rupavilasa Dasa —


Commodities for Sale in the Market The Holy Name (nama) is compared to sugarcane juice. The Holy Name imbued with the Lord's form (rupa-yukta-nama) is compared to liquid molasses (gur). The Holy Name imbued with the Lord's qualities (guna-yukta-nama) is compared to solid molasses. The Holy Name imbued with the Lord's pastimes (lila-yukta-nama) is compared to sugar. The Holy Name imbued with transcendental mellow (rasita-nama) is compared to rock candy. The Holy Name imbued with the full potency of all transcendental mellows (sarva-rasa-yukta-nama) is compared to lozenges made from rock candy. Description of the Transcendental Currency Sraddha (faith) is compared to a paisa (a small coin worth only 2-5 cents) by which the Holy Name can be be purchased. Nistha (steady devotional service) is compared to two annas or a 1/8 silver coin by which the Holy Name imbued with the Lord's form (rupa-yukta-nama) can be purchased. Ruci (taste) is compared to four annas or a 1/4 silver coin by which the Holy Name imbued with the Lord's qualities (guna-yukta-nama) can be purchased. Asakti (attachment) is compared to a 1/2 silver coin by which the Holy Name imbued with the Lord's pastimes (lila-yukta-nama) can be purchased. Bhava or Rati (preliminary ecstatic love of Godhead) is compared to a silver coin by which the Holy Name imbued with transcendental mellow (rasita-yukta-nama) can be purchased. Prema (pure love of Godhead) is compared to a golden coin by which the Holy Name imbued with the full potency of all transcendental mellows (sarva-rasa-yukta-nama) can be purchased. According to the price one pays one will receive the corresponding commodity. But there is a mystery here: when the customer pays and gets the Holy Name and chants the Holy Name, by the mercy of the owner and His partners, the customer gets back his original payment multiplied many times over. Rules of Payment "Rupees, Paisa, Silver or Gold Coins are not the real currency to purchase the commodities sold in the market place of the Holy Name. Transcendental faith and the like is the only acceptable currency. Anyone who tries to purchase the above commodities with ordinary material currency makes a great mistake." 


brajendra-nandana jei, śacī-suta hoilo sei,
balarāma hoilo nitāi


Lord Krsna, who is the son of the King of Vraja, became the son of Saci (Lord Caitanya), and Balarama became Nitai.


All glories to Lord Nityananda, who is none other than Lord Balaram and who descended to this planet earth along with Sachinandan Gaurahari to deliver the fallen conditioned souls of this age of Kali. Seeing the pitiful condition of the living entities, Lord Nityananda, following the order of his dear most Gaurasundar, went from door to door along with Haridas Thakur and preached the chanting of the Holy Names of the Lord, which are the only source of relief from the miseries of this material world. Being Desirous of benefitting every single soul, he even preached the glorious of Harinaam to the two miscreants Jagai and Madhai. Even after he was hurt by them, he still begged for the Lord to kindly forgive them and bestow love of Godhead upon them. Such is the mercy of Lord Nityananda. He freely distributed the Holy names without even taking into consideration whether a person is even qualified to receive this greatest treasure of all. Holding Lord Chaitanya to be his dear most Lord, he immediately becomes completely favourable towards a person, who even once takes the name of Gaurahari with tears of love in his eyes. As described by Srila Bahkti Vinod Thakur in one of his songs:


ek-bār dekhle cakṣe jal

‘gaura’ bole’ nitāi den sakala sambal


If Nitai sees only once tears in the eyes while chanting the name “Gaura”, then He gives all resources to that person.


Indeed, Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the property of Nityananda Prabhu, as had been described by he himself to Srila Raghunath das goswami, during his visit to Panihati. Who can possibly reach the lotus feet of Gaurahari, before taking the shelter of Nityananda Prabhu, the shade of whose lotus feet are more cooling than millions of moons. In his form as Nityananda Prabhu, Lord Balaram eagerly engages everyone in the service of Gaurahari, thus making the lives of all, who take shelter of him, successful. Without attaining the mercy of Gaurahari, one cannot approach Radha Shyamsundar, and without attaining the mercy of Nitati, one cannot reach Mahaprabhu. Therefore, Srila Narottam das Thakur instructs all the devotees to firmly catch hold Lord Nityananda’s lotus feet, for they are the only hope for an aspirant of Krishna Prem.


nitāi-pada-kamala, koṭi-candra-suśītala
je chāyāy jagata jurāy

heno nitāi bine bhāi, rādhā-kṛṣṇa pāite nāi

dṛḍha kori’ dharo nitāir pāy


The lotus feet of Lord Nityananda are a shelter where one will get the soothing moonlight not only of one, but of millions of moons. If the world wants to have real peace, it should take shelter of Lord Nityananda. Unless one takes shelter under the shade of the lotus feet of Lord Nityananda, it will be very difficult for him to approach Radha-Krsna. If one actually wants to enter into the dancing party of Radha-Krsna, he must firmly catch hold of the lotus feet of Lord Nityananda.


Remembering this most merciful form of Lord Balaram, Sri Nityananda Prabhu, we pray at his lotus feet to give us entrance into the market place of the Holy Names of the Lord, where he is freely distributing this most sublime treasure.



Bhakti Ananda Goswami —

Nityananda-Balarama has broken-open and plundered the Store House of the Holy Name!  He has distributed the Contents without any regard for those who are qualified or unworthy to receive The Great Treasure of The Holy Name of HARI !



Shubalananda —

[B]eing a kirtan leader is not a career opportunity. It is a form of seva. One sacrifices the bliss to provide this environment for others. There is no room for selfishness, or for career orientation, or for monetary gain. My kirtan guru, CJMa (Chetan Jyoti Ma), once said "Rather than charge money for kirtan, go work at McDonalds in the daytime." She was also a hard liner, but this principle has been emphasized to me by many gurus and kirtan wallahs. 



Aindra Das Prabhu —

Bhukti-nama means offensive chanting. By chanting offensively, you can benefit others only by increasing their material piety. Bhaktivinoda Thakura therefore states that a pure devotee should not participate in kirtan led by offenders to the holy name. Who are those offenders? Those who do kirtan for ulterior motives–who chant for money, or to augment their sex appeal, or do it for name and fame. Such chanting can at best result in material gratification. 



Jagadeesh Das —

The best kirtans are free and do not cost money to participate. Real devotion is not dependent on how much money you have, how learned you are, how famous you are or any other material status. Kirtans are ego-less and performed with humility of the heart with loving feelings of attachment for serving the lotus feet of Sri Guru, the pure Vaishnavas and Sri Bhagavan. I understand at a yoga studio they need money to pay the rent but it should only be on a donation basis. To charge $20 -$30 for kirtan or you can't chant does not seem like the mood of Mahaprahbu and what He envisioned for the holy names to be chanted in every town and village all over the world. (If a mantra based band of devotees are doing a huge production of music with master musicians, visuals, costumes and dancers..... an elaborate performance etc. to innertain people at a festival or costly venue then obviously charging at the door a certain amount is understandable unless it's sponsored by someone etc. 

Essentially, a kirtan with mrdanga, harmonium and kartels or any instrument is best done with freedom in the transcendental mood of spontaneous love without expecting money or fame. Donations will always be gratefully accepted as Krsna's mercy.



Trishuladhara Goswami —

My critics have mentioned a kirtan revolution in America. Let me honestly declare that I have heard abundantly from all quarters that there is, in fact, no kirtan revolution as you speak of, but rather the sad demise of this spiritual phenomenon in America. Congregational chanting of the Holy Names of Sri Hari as was in vogue in the day of Srila Prabhupada has practically been terminated in America due to the lackadaisical attitude of leaders of ISKCON, and this spiritual revolution has been replaced by Kirtan Rabbis and professional strumming songsters. As an example, please refer to your ISKCON website,, which now has the following post at ISKCON's impersonal-sounding Atma Yoga Center:


Atma Yoga, Brisbane, AU: Kirtan with Dave Stringer (3 March 2011)

"Stringer's sound marries the transcendent mysticism of traditional Indian instruments with the exuberant, groove-oriented sensibility of American gospel, and he is regarded as one of the most gifted singers in the genre. Stringer, who is also an accomplished composer and multi-instrumentalist, has a special ability to bring people together and inspire them to sing. His work intends to create a modern and participatory theatrical experience out of the ancient traditions of kirtan and yoga, open to a multiplicity of interpretations, and accessible to all."


Perhaps my critics could explain what "open to a multiplicity of interpretations" means? That does not sound like a revolution to me. Perhaps it is a revolution in a new Mayavadism within ISKCON. I have noted that the price is $30 at the door. From where does charging someone $30 to hear kirtan assimilate with my critics' mention of a kirtan revolution? Who can afford such a revolution of kirtan for the rich? When did Mahaprabhu or Prabhupada charge money to hear the Holy Names of God? Yes, as my critics have conceded, "These people may not be Chaitanya Vaishnavas." In fact, they are not any Vaishnavas. And, sadly enough for their supporters and for historical veracity, suchlike non-Vaishnavas cannot spread the glories of Vaishnavism, nor even the bare essence of Brahminical culture.


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